Historical Political Events for June 28

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Year Event
1879 As created by Act of Congress this date, the Mississippi River Commission (MRC) was responsible for the taming of the Mississippi River by building levees and canals as necessary. The commission was to consist of three officers of the Corps of Engineers, one of whom would be president; one member from the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey; and three civilians, two of whom would be civil engineers
1914 While intense nationalism in Europe was the root cause of World War I, The spark that initiated the war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia was the assassination this date at Sarajevo in Bosnia, of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir-presumptive to the Austrian throne, by Gavrilo Princip (1893-1918), a Serb nationalist. For an alternative view, see "How England Helped Start the Great War".
1919 Treaty of Versailles is signed which dictated how Germany was to pay reparations for the costs of World War I and divided up countries to suit the victors. This unbelievable bungling by the Allied powers (France, Britain, Russia, U.S.A., and others) is considered to be the major cause of World War II.
1934 The Tobacco Control Act placed the production of tobacco on a regulated basis.
1956 Workers in Poznan, Poland rose up against their Communist masters and a few days later, uprisings began in East Germany. Both were soundly crushed by the Russians. We didn't help.
1978 The beginnings of Affirmative Action: Supreme court affirms constitutionality of programs giving advantages to minorities -- the Bakke case.
1983 The Supreme Court rules, in SOLEM v. HELM, 463 U.S. 277 (1983), that a sentence of life imprisonment with no possibility of parole is unconstitutional. It seems Mr. Helm had passed a bad check for $100. The court thought the punishment was a tad excessive even if Mr. Helm had previously abused the law.
2002 The "public debt limit" from $5.95 trillion to $6.4 trillion by our exalted leaders.
2004 Foreign combatants, captured abroad, held in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba - Rasul v. Bush: The Supreme Court held that foreign nationals captured abroad and detained at Guantanamo may challenge the legality of their detention in federal courts. United States citizen, captured abroad, held in US - Hamdi v. Rumsfeld: The Supreme Court ruled that detention of enemy combatants may occur in times of war, but that a citizen held as an enemy combatant must be given the opportunity to contest his detention before a neutral fact-finder. United States citizen, captured in US, held in US - Rumsfeld v. Padilla: The Supreme Court ruled that the District Court for the Southern District of New York does not have jurisdiction to hear Padilla's habeas corpus petition.
and . . .
Quote of
the Day
He who lives by fighting with an enemy has an interest in the preservation of the enemy's life.
    — Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche
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